In the previous post, I analyzed a common recursive implementation of permutation generation. Due to its \(n!\) complexity, a stack overflow will occurs soon with the number of elements is beyond 9.

To overcome this, one technique is to generate a different permutation at a time, in which the complexity of this one permutation generation is linear. I show how this technique can be implemented using OCaml with the Johnson Trotter algorithm.

To make the implementation generic, I implement a functor which generates a Permutation module given a user-provided comparable type. For example, lets say I want to generate permutations over a list of pairs of integer values. I could with the functor to create a Permutation module over integer pairs. However it is possible to do permutation over any other value types as long as you provide an implementation of that type.

```
(************************************)
(* Permutation *)
(* Van Chan Ngo *)
(************************************)
(** Permutation over ordered types *)
type order = Lt
| Eq
| Gt
type direction = L
| R
module type ComparedType =
sig
type t
(** the type of the elements. *)
val compare : t -> t -> order
val to_string : t -> string
end
module type Permutation =
sig
type element
(** the type of the elements. *)
type permutation
(** the type of a permutation. *)
val empty : unit -> permutation
(** empty permutation. *)
val is_empty : permutation -> bool
val of_list : element list -> permutation
val stream_permutation : permutation -> permutation Stream.t
val to_string : permutation -> string
end
module Int : ComparedType with type t = int
module Make (El : ComparedType) : Permutation with type element = El.t
```

```
type order = Lt
| Eq
| Gt
type direction = L
| R
module type ComparedType =
sig
type t
(** the type of the elements. *)
val compare : t -> t -> order
val to_string : t -> string
end
module type Permutation =
sig
type element
(** the type of the elements. *)
type permutation
(** the type of a permutation. *)
val empty : unit -> permutation
(** empty permutation. *)
val is_empty : permutation -> bool
val of_list : element list -> permutation
val stream_permutation : permutation -> permutation Stream.t
val to_string : permutation -> string
end
module Int =
struct
type t = int
let to_string x = string_of_int x
let compare x y =
if x > y then
Gt
else if x < y then
Lt
else
Eq
end
module Make (El : ComparedType) =
struct
type element = El.t
type permutation = element list
let empty () = []
let is_empty p =
match p with
| [] -> true
| _ -> false
let of_list l = l
let to_string p =
List.fold_left (fun acc x -> acc ^ " " ^ (El.to_string x)) "" p
let stream_permutation p =
let attach_direction a =
Array.map (fun x -> (x, L)) a
in
let swap a i j =
let tmp = a.(j) in
a.(j) <- a.(i);
a.(i) <- tmp
in
let is_movable a i =
let x, d = a.(i) in
match d with
| L ->
begin
if i > 0 then
match El.compare x (fst a.(i-1)) with
| Gt -> true
| _ -> false
else
false
end
| R ->
begin
if i < Array.length a - 1 then
match El.compare x (fst a.(i+1)) with
| Gt -> true
| _ -> false
else
false
end
in
let move a i =
let x, d = a.(i) in
if is_movable a i then
match d with
| L -> swap a i (i-1)
| R -> swap a i (i+1)
else
failwith "not movable"
in
let scan_movable_largest a =
let rec aux acc i =
if i >= Array.length a then
acc
else if not (is_movable a i) then
aux acc (i+1)
else
let x, _ = a.(i) in
match acc with
| None -> aux (Some i) (i+1)
| Some j ->
match El.compare x (fst a.(j)) with
| Lt -> aux acc (i+1)
| _ -> aux (Some i) (i+1)
in
aux None 0
in
let flip d =
match d with
| L -> R
| R -> L
in
let scan_flip_larger x a =
Array.iteri (fun i (y, d) ->
match El.compare y x with
| Gt -> a.(i) <- (y, flip d)
| _ -> ())
a
in
let permutations_generator l =
let a = Array.of_list l |> attach_direction in
let r = ref (Some l) in
let next () =
let p = !r in
(match scan_movable_largest a with (* find the largest movable *)
| None -> r := None (* no more permutations *)
| Some i ->
let x, _ = a.(i) in
(
move a i; (* move *)
scan_flip_larger x a; (* after move, scan to flip *)
r := Some (Array.map fst a |> Array.to_list)
)
);
p
in
next
in
let generator = permutations_generator p in
Stream.from (fun _ -> generator ())
end
```

```
module IntPair =
struct
type t = int * int
let to_string x =
let (x1,x2) = x in
"(" ^ (string_of_int x1) ^ "," ^ (string_of_int x2) ^ ")"
let compare (x1,y1) (x2,y2) =
if x1 > x2 then
Gt
else if x1 < x2 then
Lt
else
begin
if y1 > y2 then
Gt
else if y1 < y2 then
Lt
else
Eq
end
end
module P = Permutation.Make(IntPair)
```